We have now tracked the global average cart abandonment rate for 12 years. Sadly, little has improved in those years, and the average cart abandonment rate currently sits at 68.8%. Stop for a second to consider that: after having gone through the trouble of finding a product and adding it to their cart, a whopping 2 out of 3 users choose to abandon their purchase.
We’re therefore launching a completely revised version of our Checkout Usability study. This new usability study is the result of 7 years worth of e-commerce checkout research – testing live production sites of major brands with real end-users – to figure out why those 68.8% of shopping carts are abandoned, and what e-commerce sites can do to improve this abysmal statistic.
The findings in the study are based on qualitative usability testing with 272 test subject / site sessions following the “Think Aloud” protocol (1:1 moderated testing), a large-scale eye-tracking study of checkout flows, two rounds of checkout benchmarking more than 850 checkout steps, and eight quantitative studies with a total of 10,721 participants.
Despite testing leading e-commerce sites, the subjects encountered 2,700+ instances of checkout usability issues. It’s these hiccups that, along with the quantitative data, have been analyzed and distilled into the 134 checkout usability guidelines that constitute the backbone of this study.
Now in all fairness, a large portion of cart abandonments are simply a natural consequence of how users browse e-commerce sites – it is users doing window shopping, price comparison, saving items for later, exploring gift options, etc. These are largely unavoidable cart abandonments.
In fact, our latest quantitative study of reasons for cart abandonment finds that 58.6% of US online shoppers have abandoned a cart within the last 3 months because “I was just browsing / not ready to buy”. Naturally, this segment of users is almost impossible to reduce through a better checkout design – most of these will abandon even before they initiate the checkout flow. However, if we segment out this “just browsing” segment, and instead look at the remaining reasons for abandonments we get the following distribution:
Unlike the “just browsing” segment, a lot of these issues can be resolved. In fact, many of them can be fixed purely through design changes. Let’s take a look at just one example from the new checkout study:
In other words, nearly 1 out of 5 shoppers have abandoned a cart in the last quarter due to a “too long / complicated checkout process”, yet for most checkouts it’s possible to make a 20-60% reduction in the default number of form elements shown to users during checkout. And again, this is just one of many examples of causes for checkout abandonments.
So while a 0% cart abandonment rate might be unattainable, we can certainly do better than 68.8%. But how much better? Well, our research suggests the average e-commerce site can improve its conversion rate by 35% solely through design improvements to the checkout process.
If we focus exclusively on the checkout usability issues which we – during multiple rounds of large-scale checkout usability testing – have documented can be fixed by checkout design improvements alone, then the average large-sized e-commerce site can gain a 35.26% increase in conversion rate. And that is despite this figure being based on the checkout flows of leading e-commerce sites, such as Walmart, Amazon, Wayfair, Crate & Barrel, ASOS, etc.
Now, achieving such gains won’t come easy. But even when we audit leading Fortune 500 companies, who’ve already run a couple of checkout optimization projects, we find that major gains are still possible. And the potential is big: our benchmark of 50 leading e-commerce sites reveal that the checkout flows of large e-commerce sites on average have 39 potential areas for improvements.
Yet don’t be discouraged if you don’t have the resources of a Fortune 500 site – the vast majority of the checkout changes in this report are related to page layout, addition of simple form features, and improving microcopy, and thus don’t require advanced technical implementation or deep pockets. Indeed, we find small online retailers just as capable of crafting great checkout experiences, if they stay nimble and focused.
During the past 11 years of testing e-commerce sites we’ve consistently found that the design and flow of the checkout process is frequently the sole cause for abandonments. Either because users grow so infuriated with the site that they leave in anger, or because they get stuck on how to complete one or more fields and end up having no other option than to leave.
Over the next couple of months we’ll dive deeper into our findings from the usability research study in a series of articles on checkout usability. In the meantime consider taking a look at the just-released checkout UX performance and ranking of 60 major e-commerce sites. In the free and public part of the benchmark database you can also browse the 380 manually reviewed checkout steps, by “step type” for checkout inspiration. (We’ve also published a collection of simple, research-based actions found to improve conversion rate for e-commerce.)
As with all of our research studies, the checkout usability study includes an exhaustive usability report along with an integrated benchmark database. The report is 718 pages long, and outlines 134 design guidelines on how to improve checkout usability (and thus lower cart abandonments). The benchmark database is based on more than 6,000 manually reviewed checkout elements and contains 60 case studies of major e-commerce sites and 380 annotated checkout steps.
You can learn more about getting full access to the study at: baymard.com/research/checkout-usability
This article presents the research findings from just 1 of the 580+ UX guidelines in Baymard Premium – get full access to learn how to create a “State of the Art” cart and checkout user experience.
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..and not forcing us to create accounts is an even easier barrier to remove. Before using awesome services like bugmenot and mailinator, a few sites I order something from maybe twice a year always meant
- typing in my email address
- clicking on “forgot my password”
- waiting for the mail to come in
- click the link and make some new, ready-to-forget password
- finish my order.
It’s an unnecessary burden in the checkout process, and there are shops I simply avoid because I know there is no guest checkout.
I find it mind-boggling that most online retailers don’t have continuous optimisation processes in place for their basket and checkout. When you have a core user journey that every single one of your customers must complete, it makes sense to work obsessively at the bottom of the funnel.
Christian Holst and his team have done it again. Rock-solid research backed up by numbers that can’t be argued with. We’ve been using Baymard’s research for many years now and consistently find value in it in the form of highly applicable guidelines. The cost of the annual subscription has paid for itself many times over. Thank you for that, Christian.
Thanks for sharing this wonderful information with us. Yes, maximum people have abandoned their carts because of the high price and extra shipping charges and enough to pay. But on the online web, one more option exists that is a price drop alert that will give you the same products at your liking prices. Set your alert and get a notification.